Agricultural Gateway to India

Agricultural Gateway to India
DIRECTORY OF THE KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRAS (KVKs), INDIA
State / Union Territory
Andaman & icobar
Krishi vigyan Kendra, Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair ( A&N), Pin – 744101, Established in 1992
Andhra Pradesh
Acharya Ranga Krishi Vigyan Kendra(RASS), Vanasthali
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalavacherla
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Malyal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rastakuntubai
Prakasam Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jammikunta
Prof. N.G. Ranga Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Vinayashram
Sri Aurobindo Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gaddipalli
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Undi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mahanandi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Anantapur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Amadalavalasa
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture ( CRIDA), Hyderabad, Pin- 500059, Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Medak , Pin- 502220, Established in 1991.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kurnool, Pin- 518124, Established in 1990.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Madannapur, Mahaboobnagar, Pin-509110 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Visakhapatnam, Pin-530005 , Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Warangal, Pin-506101 , Established in 1996.

Arunachal Pradesh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, ICAR Res. Complex for NEH Region, AP Centre, Basar
Assam
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Cachar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nagam
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gossaigaon
Krishi Vigyan Kendra Khumtai,Golaghat
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tinsukhia, Pin- 786125, Established in 1996.
Bihar
Vanvasi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Adhaura
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Agwanpur,Seharsa, Pin- 859901, Established in 1979.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Munger, Pin- 811201, Established in 1979.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banka, Pin- 813101, Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Khodawanpur, Begusarai, Pin- 851001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Barh, Patna, Pin-802112 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nalanda, Pin- 803111, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jagannathpur, Singbhum, Pin- 833203 ,Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Darbanga, Pin-846004 , Established in 1996.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Supani, Pin-852131, Established in 1996.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ranchi, Pin-834008 , Established in 1977.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deoghar, Pin- 814152, Established in 1985.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hazaribagh, Pin-825301 , Established in 1984.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nawada, Pin- 805106, Established in 1979.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhojpur, Pin- 802301, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhanbad, Pin- 828122, Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jamui, Pin- 811313, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Madhubani, Pin-847102 , Established in 1994.
Delhi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ujwa,New Delhi, Pin- 110073 , Established in 1995.
Gujarat
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gujarat Vidyapeeth, Randheja
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Waghat
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deesa,Banaskantha, Pin- 385535, Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Panchmahals , Pin- 389380, Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Devtaj, Kheda, Pin-387240, Established in 1985.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Surat, Pin-395001, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Valsad, Pin-396001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sidhpur, Mehsana, Pin- 384130 Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mundra, Kachchh, Pin-370421, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bharauch, Pin- 392001, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Baroda,Vadodara, Pin- 391125, Established in 1994.
Haryana
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rampura
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kurukshetra
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Panipat
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Damla
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Faridabad
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sadalpur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Jagdishpur Farm), Sonipat
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kaithal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jind, Pin-126102, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shikohpur,Gurgoan, Pin-122xxx , Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ambala, Pin-134003, Established in 1995
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Karnal, Pin- 132001, Established in 1976.
Himachal Pradesh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bajaura (Kullu)
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhaulakuan
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Una
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chamba
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mandi, Pin- 175001, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bara, Hamirpur, Pin-177044, Established in 1989.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kinnaur, Pin-172107 , Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rohru, Shimla, Pin- 171207, Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kangra, Pin- 176401, Established in 1993.
Jammu & Kashmir
Krishi Vigyan Kendra/Extension Training Centre, Malangpura
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jammu
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Leh, Pin – 194101, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kathua , Pin – 184104 , Established in 1995 .
Karnataka
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bidar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gonikopal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hassan
K.H. Patil Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hulkoti
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hanumanmatti, Dharwad , Pin – 581135 , Established in 1977 .
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mudigere, Pin – 577132, Established in 1985.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bellary, Pin -583138 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mysore, Pin -570013 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kolar, Pin -562101, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Belgaum , Pin -591224 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Raichur , Established in 1994.
Kerala
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ambalavayal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mitraniketan, Vellanad
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pattambi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sadanandapuram
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Manjeswar
Vedapuri Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Thiruvannamalai
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Peruvannamuzhi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ernakulum, Pin -682505 , Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Trivendrum, Pin -695543 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pathenamthitta, Pin -689645 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Idukki, Pin -685601, Established in 1994.
Madhya Pradesh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhopal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bilaspur (MP)
Tulsi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ganivan (Banda)
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sidhi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Aron
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kothi Bag Rajgarh (Biaora)
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tikamgarh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Seoni
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shahdol
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhabua
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chandangaon
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Khandwa
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sidhi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kenolra, Mandi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pala Balaghat, Pin -481115 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Durg, Pin – 491001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Surguja, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bastar, Pin -494223 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Vidisha, Pin – 464228, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indore, Pin – 452020, Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ratlam, Pin – 457340, Established in 1995.
Maharastra
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Babhaleshwar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Baramati
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhule
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalna
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nagpur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pirens
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Selsura, Wardha, Pin -442001, Established in 1979.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Aurangabad, Pin -431005, Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shirgaon, Ratnagiri, Pin -415629 , Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Thane, Pin -401703 , Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Beed, Ambajogoi, Pin – 431517, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Satara, Pin -415110 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sangli, Pin – 416416, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Parbhani, Pin – 431401, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kolhapur, Pin -416012, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Buldana, Pin – 443401, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Durgapur, Amravati, Pin – 4446xx, Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ghatkhed, Amravati, Pin – 444602, Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nanded, Pin -431605, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Solapur, Pin -413001 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Akola, Pin – 444106 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sindhudurg, Pin – 416622, Established in 1996.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nasik, Pin – 422005, Established in 1994.
Mizoram
Farm Science Centre, (KVK), Kalasib
Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Lunglei, Pin – 796701 , Established in 1979.
N agaland
ICAR Research Complex, Jharnapani
Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Medziphema, Jharnapani, Pin- 797106, Established in 1977.
Orissa
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhanjanagar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Semiliguda
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, G. Udayagiri
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Keonjhar, Orissa
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Balasore, Pin -756023, Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sambalpur, Pin – 768102, Established in 1985.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalahandi, Pin – 766001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kendrapada, Pin -754211 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhubaneshwar, Pin – 751002, Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Cuttack, Pin – 753006, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhenkanal, Pin – 759013, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Angul, Pin – 759122, Established in 1995.
Pondicherry
Perunthalaivar Kamaraj Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kurumbapet, Pondicherry
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Karaikal, Pin – 609607, Established in 1994.
Punjab
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bahowal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bathinda
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gurdaspur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Malwal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sardarshahr
Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Rauni, Patiala , Pin -147001, Established in 1989.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sangrur, Pin – 148001, Established in 1993.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalandhar, Pin – 144516, Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Abohar, Ferozepur, Pin – 152116, Established in 1992.
Rajasthan
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ajmer
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Badgaon
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Beechwal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chomu
Bharatiya Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Fatehpur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sirohi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Goneda
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Abusar (Jhunjhunu)
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banaswara, Pin – 327001 , Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalore, Pin -343001 , Established in 1985.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bharatpur, Pin – 321001, Established in 1980.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chittorgarh, Pin – 312001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sawaimadhopur, Pin – 322001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kota, Pin – 324001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jaisalmer, Pin – 345001 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Alwar, Pin -301001 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bundi , Pin – 323001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhilwara, Pin – 311001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhaulpur, Pin – 328001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dungarpur, Pin -314001 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhalawar, Pin – 326001, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nagaur, Pin -341001 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Baran, Pin – 325202 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dausa, Pin – 303303, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Surajgarh, Jhunjhunu, Pin- 333029,Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rajsamand, Pin – 313342, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jodhpur, Pin -342003 , Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pali, Marwar, Pin- 306401, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Tonk, Pin – 304022, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Barmer, Pin -344001 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sangaria, Sri Ganganagar, Pin – 335063, Established in 1994.
Sikkim
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ranipool
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Saramsa, East Sikkim
Tamil Nadu
UPASI Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Coonoor
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kattupakkam
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kundrakudi
TNAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Madurai
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sirugamani
MYRADA Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Thalamalai
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Vridhachalam
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sandhiyur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Coimbatore, Pin -641113 , Established in 1979.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kattapattu, Dindigul Anna, Pin – 624302, Established in 1989.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Samabuvaranjar, Established in 1991.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dharmapuri, Pin – 636701 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nellai Kattabomman, Pin – 627852, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kamrajar, Pin – 636014 , Established in 1995.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Suttur, Pin -641402, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chidambaram, Pin – 627414, Established in 1995.
Tripura
Divyodaya Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chebri
Uttar Pradesh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dariyapur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Izatnagar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mathura
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ranichauri
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Siddharthnagar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rampur
Lal Bahadur Shastri Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gonda
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bahraich , Pin -271801 , Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Basti, Pin – 272302, Established in 1989.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pilkhl, Pin – 221705, Established in 1989.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Balia, Pin – 277004, Established in 1984.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Varanasi, Pin – 221001, Established in 1989.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhansi, Pin -284003, Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Fatehpur, Pin – 212601, Established in 1989.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Aligarh, Pin -202002, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bijnor, Pin -246762 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shahjahanpur, Pin -242001 , Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pithorgarh, Pin – 262524, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sultanpur, Pin – 228118, Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banda, Pin -210206 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hastinapur, Meerut, Pin – 250404 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lucknow, Pin – 226002, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Muzaffarnagar, Pin – 247776, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Awagarh, Etah, Pin – 207301, Established in 1982.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mirzapur, Pin -231011 , Established in 1984.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Allahabad, Pin – 211007 , Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Barabanki, Pin – 225001, Established in 1996.
West Bengal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalimpong
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kakdwip, South 24-Paraganas, Pin -743347 , Established in 1979.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapgari, Midnapore, Pin – 721505 , Established in 1976.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalpaiguri, Pin -735219, Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nimpith, South 24- Paraganas, Pin – 743338, Established in 1979.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Purulia, Pin – 723147, Established in 1992.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bankura, Pin – 722202, Established in 1983.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Burdwan, Pin – 713212, Established in 1994.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Birbhum, Pin – 731236, Established in 1994.

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Bank of Baroda Agriculture Officer Exam – 2008

1. How many mango trees will be accommodated with a spacing of 5•0 m x 5•0 m in an area one Hectare ?
(A) 400 tree/ha
(B) 750 tree/ha
(C) 800 tree/ha
(D) 850 tree/ha
(E) 900 tree/ha

2. Of the Total Net Bank Credit (NBC) of the Public Sector Banks at the end of March 2007, what is the share of Agricultural Lending (Direct and Indirect) ?
(A) 13•6 per cent
(B) 14•6 per cent
(C) 15•6 per cent
(D) 16•6 per cent
(E) 17•6 per cent

3. What is the average yield per lactation in buffalo in India ?
(A) 1200 kg
(B) 1250 kg
(C) 1300 kg
(D) 1350 kg
(E) 1400 kg

4. Which one of the following Districts of Andhra Pradesh is considered as the ‘Hub of Fresh Fish Farming’ ?
(A) Nellore
(B) Guntur
(C) Krishna
(D) Godavari
(E) Anantpur

5. At present, per capita availability of milk in India is about—
(A) 200 gram per day
(B) 210 gram per day
(C) 215 gram per day
(D) 220 gram per day
(E) 225 gram per day

6. Under the cold storage, this crop requires 0-1 degree Celsius temperature and 98–100 per cent humidity ……… .
(A) Brinjal
(B) Bhindi
(C) Peas
(D) Grape
(E) Banana

7. This Hybrid variety of Sorghum (Jowar) is high yielding, tolerant to shoot fly, stemborer, with good roti making qualities suitable for Maharashtra state under Kharif and Rabi Seasons—
(A) AKSV 13 R
(B) SPV 1155 (Variety)
(C) SHD 9690 (Hybrid)
(D) DSV 5 (Variety)
(E) DSV 4 (Variety)

8. Which one of the following Agrofood sector in India has ‘Highest Level of Processing’ (percentage of total production) ?
(A) Fruits and Vegetables
(B) Milk and Milk Products
(C) Buffalo Meat
(D) Poultry Product
(E) Marine Products

9. This Micro Finance Institution (MFI) in India, is one of the fastest growing MFI in the world with annual growth rate of 200 per cent—
(A) PRADHAN
(B) BASIX
(C) SKS
(D) MYRADA
(E) Sadaguru Seva Trust

10. This Sunflower Hybrid Variety is tall (150 cm–180 cm), early in maturity (95 days), yields 1•7 tonnes to 2•0 tonnes per hectare, is recommended for cultivation at all India level—
(A) KBSH 44 (Hybrid)
(B) KBSH 41 (Hybrid)
(C) KBSH 42 (Hybrid)
(D) LSFH 35 (Maruti-Hybrid)
(E) PSFH 118 (Hybrid)

11. As on March 2007, of the total Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) issued to farmers by Formal Financial Institutions in India, the share of commercial banks is about—
(A) 37 per cent
(B) 45 per cent
(C) 47 per cent
(D) 49 per cent
(E) 51 per cent

12. During the last four decades, there had ‘Not been any meaningful gain in production’ of this group of crops in India ……… .
(A) Oilseed crops
(B) Plantation crops
(C) Aromatic and Medicinal plants
(D) Horticultural crops
(E) Pulse crops

13. Which one of the following countries, ranked first in the Inland Fisheries production in 2004-05 ?
(A) Japan
(B) United States
(C) China
(D) India
(E) Thailand

14. What percentages of total cultivable area in India, is presently under ‘Fodder’ production ?
(A) 3•60 per cent
(B) 4•60 per cent
(C) 5•60 per cent
(D) 6•60 per cent
(E) 7•60 per cent

15. This country ranked first in production of ‘Mushrooms’ in the world—
(A) China
(B) Nepal
(C) Bangladesh
(D) Indonesia
(E) Brazil

16. In which one of the following states, more than 2,000 ‘Vermicomposting units’ started by individuals and/or organization in rural and urban centres ?
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Andhra Pradesh
(C) Punjab
(D) Himachal Pradesh
(E) Karnataka

17. Nearly 35 per cent of the total ‘Fish Processing Facilities’ in India is concentrated in this state—
(A) Goa
(B) Kerala
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) Maharashtra
(E) Karnataka

18. This is a premier Institute/Board/Authority set up by Government of India for providing technical and financial support for creation of postharvest infrastructure for Horticultural crops in India—
(A) APEDA
(B) NCDC
(C) NHB
(D) MPEDA
(E) None of these

19. Which one of the following crops you will suggest to a Big Farmer for getting higher yields and good income under the ‘Protected cultivation’ or under ‘Green-House condition’ ?
(A) Coloured Capsicum
(B) Vegetable Nursery
(C) Brinjal
(D) Sweet Corn
(E) Lettuce

20. Which one of the following Private Corporate Companies in India is a leader in organized sector producing ‘Potato chips’ in India ?
(A) ITC
(B) HLL
(C) Clean Food
(D) Pepsi Co.
(E) GD Foods

21. In which one of the following Indian states, percentage of total cultivable area under Horticultural crops is only 2•75 per cent ?
(A) Madhya Pradesh
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Jharkhand
(D) Chhattisgarh
(E) Uttar Pradesh

22. What percentage of ‘All Economically Productive women population’ in India are engaged in Agriculture including animal husbandry and fisheries ?
(A) 38 per cent
(B) 48 per cent
(C) 58 per cent
(D) 68 per cent
(E) 78 per cent

23. In which year, the ‘Varsha Bima Yojana’ (Insurance against the adverse incidence of rainfall) was started in India ?
(A) 2004
(B) 2005
(C) 2006
(D) 2007
(E) 2008

24. Which one of the following states, the extent of financial exclusion is between 50 to 75 per cent ?
(A) Bihar
(B) Karnataka
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) Jharkhand
(E) West Bengal

25. A field of work in which people aim to improve the access of rural communities to efficient, sustainable financial services is known as or categorized as—
(A) Agricultural Finance
(B) Rural Finance
(C) Micro Finance
(D) Financial Institution
(E) Financial Intermediary

26. The Science of cultivation and harvesting of fruits is called ‘Pomology’, however, of the following fruits, this fruit crop presently is not covered under the ‘Pomology’—
(A) Water-melon
(B) Banana
(C) Strawberry
(D) Sapota
(E) Custard Apple

27. The ‘Productivity of Banana’ (yield per hectare) is highest in this state—
(A) Tamil Nadu
(B) Kerala
(C) Karnataka
(D) Maharashtra
(E) Gujarat

28. Pepsi Co. started Contract farming in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh for preparation of—
(A) Tomato purees
(B) Basmati Rice
(C) Groundnut Butter
(D) Sunflower Oil
(E) Chilli Paste for Export

29. At present, how many National Research Institutes are working on Development of Products/crops under ‘Agricultural Biotechnologies’ in India ?
(A) 20
(B) 25
(C) 30
(D) 35
(E) 40

30. ‘Shifting Cultivation’ is practiced in India covering about 14•66 lakh hectare area, where in this state ranked first with 3•75 lakh hectare—
(A) Assam
(B) Arunachal Pradesh
(C) Manipur
(D) Meghalaya
(E) Tripura

31. Which one of the following flower crops is native of India ?
(A) Gladious
(B) Bougainvillea
(C) Tuberose
(D) Orchids
(E) All these

32. What is the Total Plan allocation (Rs. crores) for development of Rainfed/Dryland Agriculture in the XIth Five Year Plan Period (2007-08 to 2011-2012) ?
(A) Rs. 65,000 crore
(B) Rs. 70,000 crore
(C) Rs. 75,000 crore
(D) Rs. 80,000 crore
(E) Rs. 85,000 crore

33. As on March 31, 2007, how many of the Public Sector Banks had achieved Direct Agricultural Lending Target (13•5 per cent of Net Bank Credit) stipulated by the RBI ?
(A) Eight
(B) Nine
(C) Ten
(D) Eleven
(E) Twelve

34. This ‘Mango Hybrid Variety’ is early maturity, dwarf and having attractive colour, suitable for ‘Chotanagpur Region’ for the India—
(A) Amrapali
(B) Safed Maldah
(C) Malika
(D) Gulab Khas
(E) Ratna

35. Production period in case of tea after gestation period is to the extant of …… .
(A) 100 years
(B) 50 years
(C) 25 years
(D) 10 years
(E) 5 years

36. Recently, this Public Sector Bank, had launched an innovation called ‘Village Knowledge Centre’ wherein technology is used to help the farmers improve his productivity—
(A) Punjab National Bank
(B) Central Bank of India
(C) United Bank of India
(D) United Commercial Bank
(E) Union Bank of India

37. As on 31 March, 2008, which one of the following Microfinance Programmes have covered the largest number of BPL/poor families in India ?
(A) SHG-Bank Linkage Programme
(B) SIDBI Foundation for Micro Credit (SFMC)
(C) Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)
(D) Friends of Women’s World Banking (FWWB)
(E) Rashtriya Grameen Vikas Nidhi (RGVN)

38. Which one of the following is the name of a fungicide which can move mainly upwards within the plant and kill the pathogen away from the point of application ?
(A) Semesan
(B) Demosan
(C) Cuprosan
(D) Tulisan
(E) Ceresan

39. As on March 2008, how many ‘No Frill Accounts’ were opened by Banks under Financial Inclusion ?
(A) 12 million
(B) 13 million
(C) 14 million
(D) 15 million
(E) 16 million

40. This state is the Leading Producer of Vegetables in India contributing around 19 per cent of country’s production from 17 per cent of the total area under vegetable—
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Bihar
(C) West Bengal
(D) Andhra Pradesh
(E) Karnataka

41. According to the RBI Report (2001-02), this Banking Region of the country has ‘Highest Flow of Institutional Credit for Agriculture’ in terms of amount of credit extended in Rs. per hectare of Gross Cropped Area—
(A) Northern Region
(B) North-Eastern Region
(C) Eastern Region
(D) Western Region
(E) Southern Region

42. Based on the Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India (RBI, 2007), the number of rural branches of scheduled Commercial Banks in India as on 30th June, 2007, were—
(A) 32,303
(B) 32,121
(C) 30,775
(D) 30,500
(E) 30,633

43. At present (2006), the estimated population of Tractors (Number of Tractors) in India is about—
(A) 28 lakhs
(B) 29 lakhs
(C) 30 lakhs
(D) 31 lakhs
(E) 32 lakhs

44. This being the only country in the world producing all four known commercial varieties of silk viz., Mulberry, Tasar, Eri and Muga—
(A) China
(B) Brazil
(C) Japan
(D) India
(E) Korean Republic

45. Which one of the following Pearl Millet (Bajra) variety is early maturity, with high yield and suitable for Haryana State under irrigated and rainfed situation ?
(A) GHB-757
(B) HHB-146
(C) GHB-538
(D) HHB-94
(E) RHB-121

46. Of the 31 Districts identified in four states as having higher incidence of farmers suicides due to economic distress. How many of the 31 economically distress districts belonged to Andhra Pradesh ?
(A) 10 Districts
(B) 12 Districts
(C) 14 Districts
(D) 16 Districts
(E) 18 Districts

47. Approximately, what percentage of Total Grape produced in India every year dried for Raising Purpose ?
(A) 10 per cent
(B) 12 per cent
(C) 14 per cent
(D) 16 per cent
(E) 18 per cent

48. The Head Quarter of ‘National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) which was established on 10th July, 2006 for realizing full potential of Indian Fisheries sector is located at—
(A) Rajendranagar (Hyderabad) A.P.
(B) Cochi (Kerala)
(C) Mangalore (Karnataka)
(D) Mumbai (Maharashtra)
(E) Bhubaneshwar (Orissa)

49. This Central Cattle Breeding Farm is producing ‘HFx Tharparkar Crossbred Bulls’ for breeding purpose in India—
(A) Andeshnagar (U.P.)
(B) Dhamrod (Gujarat)
(C) Hassergatha (Karnataka)
(D) Suratgarh (Rajasthan)
(E) Alamdhi (Tamil Nadu)

50. Which one of the following countries, ‘Annual Per Capita Consumption’ of Wine is highest (50 litres) ?
(A) China
(B) Australia
(C) USA
(D) France
(E) Germany

Posted in Exam, Indian Agriculture | Leave a comment

National Symbols

National Symbols are intrinsic to the Indian identity and heritage. Indians of all demographics backgrounds across the world are proud of these National Symbols as they infuse a sense of pride and patriotism in every Indian’s heart.
National Flag








The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.
Apart from non-statutory instructions issued by the Government from time to time, display of the National Flag is governed by the provisions of the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (No. 12 of 1950) and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971). The Flag Code of India, 2002 is an attempt to bring together all such laws, conventions, practices and instructions for the guidance and benefit of all concerned.
The Flag Code of India, 2002, took effect from 26 January 2002 and superseded the ‘Flag Code-Indias’ as it existed. As per the provisions of the Flag Code of India, 2002, there are no restriction on the display of the National Flag by members of general public, private organisations, educational institutions, etc., except to the extent provided in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 and any other law enacted on the subject.
National Bird







The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, the national bird of India, is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight.
National Flower







Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI).
National Tree







Indian fig tree, Ficus bengalensis, whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meets under the shade of this tree.
National River








The Ganga or Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 kms of mountains, valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by other rivers such as the Alaknanda, Yamuna, Son, Gumti, Kosi and Ghagra. The Ganga river basin (External website that opens in a new window) is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an area of 1,000,000 sq. kms. There are two dams on the river – one at Haridwar and the other at Farakka. The Ganges River Dolphin is an endangered animal that specifically habitats this river.
The Ganga is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth. Key religious ceremonies are held on the banks of the river at cities such as Varanasi, Haridwar and Allahabad. The Ganga widens out into the Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans swamp of Bangladesh, before it ends its journey by emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
National Aquatic Animal







River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water. Platanista gangetica has a long pointed snout and also have visible teeth in both the upper and lower jaws. Their eyes lack a lens and therefore function solely as a means of detecting the direction of light. Dolphins tend to swim with one fin trailing along the substrate while rooting around with their beak to catch shrimp and fish. Dolphins have a fairly thick body with light grey-brown skin often with a hue of pink. The fins are large and the dorsal fin is triangular and undeveloped. This mammal has a forehead that rises steeply and has very small eyes. River Dolphins are solitary creatures and females tend to be larger than males. They are locally known as susu, because of the noise it makes while breathing. This species inhabits parts of the Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, and the Karnaphuli River in Bangladesh.
River dolphin is a critically endangered species in India and therefore, has been included in the Schedule I for the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The main reasons for decline in population of the species are poaching and habitat degradation due to declining flow, heavy siltation, construction of barrages causing physical barrier for this migratory species.
National Animal








The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, ‘Project Tiger’ was launched in April 1973. So far, 27 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering an area of 37,761 sq km.
National Fruit







A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera indica, the mango is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. Its juicy fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial. The poet Kalidasa sang its praises. Alexander savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang. Mughal emperor Akbar planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh.
National Game










India has conquered the podium when it comes to the game of Hockey. Our nation has an excellent record with eight Olympic gold medals. Indian hockey’s golden period was from 1928-56, when the Indian hockey team won six successive Olympic gold medals. Team also won the 1975 World Cup besides two more medals (silver and a bronze). The Indian Hockey Federation (External website that opens in a new window) gained global affiliation in 1927 and joined the International Hockey Federation (FIH) (External website that opens in a new window).
Thus began the history of Indian Hockey Federation as India entered the Olympics to begin its golden saga. The tour was a huge success with India winning 18 out of the 21 matches and the legendary Dhyan Chand was the cynosure of all the eyes scoring over 100 goals of the 192 Indian accounted for. The match began in Amsterdam in 1928 and India went on a winning spree in Los Angeles in 1932 and Berlin in 1936 and thus bagged a hat-trick of gold medals at the Olympics.
Post Indian Independence; the Indian team achieved another hat-trick of gold medals at the 1948 London Olympics, 1952 Helsinki Games and the Melbourne Olympics.
During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic matches, won all 24, scored 178 goals (at an average of 7.43 goals per match) and conceded only 7 goals. The two other gold medals for India came in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
National Anthem
The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in this information sheet for general information and guidance.
The National Anthem
The composition consisting of the words and music of the first stanza of the late poet Rabindra Nath Tagore’s song known as “Jana Gana Mana” is the National Anthem of India. It reads as follows:
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Punjab-Sindh-Gujarat-Maratha
Dravida-Utkala-Banga
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga
Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga.
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mange,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
The above is the full version of the Anthem and its playing time is approximately 52 seconds.
National Song
The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza:
Vande Mataram!
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Shasyashyamalam, Mataram!
Vande Mataram!
Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim,
Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,
Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!
Vande Mataram, Vande Mataram!
National Calendar
The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes:
Gazette of India.
News broadcast by All India Radio.
Calendars issued by the Government of India.
Government communications addressed to the members of the public.
Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
State Emblem







The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).
In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’, are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.
Currency Symbol







The symbol of Indian Rupee typifies India’s international identity for money transactions and economic strength. The Indian Rupee sign is an allegory of Indian ethos. The symbol is an amalgam of Devanagari “Ra” and the Roman Capital “R” with two parallel horizontal stripes running at the top representing the national flag and also the “equal to” sign. The Indian Rupee sign was adopted by the Government of India on 15th July, 2010.
The symbol, conceptualised and designed by Udaya Kumar, a post graduate in Design from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, has been chosen from thousands of concept entries received by the Ministry of Finance through an open competition among resident Indian nationals. The process of establishing and implementing this new identity is underway through various digital technology and computer applications.
Posted in Indian Agriculture, Special | Leave a comment

Dena Bank Agriculture Officers Exam – 2008

1. Which of the following crops is tolerant of soil on water salinity ?
(A) Date-palm
(B) Cabbage
(C) Orange
(D) Grapes
(E) Peas


2. How many minimum tractor hours per year of 40 H.P. power should be used approximately for purely agricultural use and not for custom service unit to become viable unit ?
(A) 500 hrs.
(B) 600 hrs.
(C) 1000 hrs.
(D) 1500 hrs.
(E) 2000 hrs.



3. Drip-irrigation has been most successful for……
(A) Rice
(B) Wheat
(C) Berseem
(D) Lucerne
(E) Grape


4. The percentage of Nitrogen (N) in DAP is……
(A) 46
(B) 26
(C) 18
(D) 80
(E) 30


5. Contract farming consists of……
(A) hiring land by farmers on contract basis for cultivation
(B) supply of agreed quantity of produce to agreed price to the company
(C) company taking on lease basis farmers’ land for cultivation
(D) processing cash crops, vegetables etc. by company and to give back to farmers
(E) providing inputs by company to farmers for improving quality of produce


6. Water held in the soil is not available to the plant, if it is held at tension……
(A) 1/3 atmosphere
(B) below 1/3 atmosphere
(C) 1-3 atmosphere
(D) 3-15 atmosphere
(E) above 15 atmosphere


7. While starting cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants, first it should be ensured……
(A) cultivation expenses
(B) medicinal value of plants
(C) availability of processing unit
(D) location of the farm
(E) availability of assured profitable market


8. West Coast Tall (WCT) is a variety of……
(A) Paddy
(B) Cashew
(C) Coconut
(D) Arecanut
(E) Coco


9. The phenomenon of Heterosis has been most commercially exploited first in……
(A) Rice
(B) Wheat
(C) Maize
(D) Sugarcane
(E) Tobacco


10. Processed meat and poultry products have good market. However, their export is mainly hampered due to……
(A) processing not as per demand
(B) breeds are not suitable for export
(C) no proper transport conditions
(D) unhygienic conditions of slaughter houses and animal diseases
(E) domestic market is available easily


11. Arabica is a type of……
(A) flower
(B) horse
(C) coffee
(D) vegetable
(E) fodder


12. Vermicompost is prepared with the help of following……
(A) Bacteria
(B) Earthworms
(C) Ants
(D) Virus
(E) Fungus


13. The average carbon / nitrogen ratio of soils is generally……
(A) 25 : 1
(B) 5 : 1
(C) 30 : 1
(D) 14 : 1
(E) None of these


14. In case of Drip irrigation which of the following advantage is observed ?
(A) It saves water
(B) Root system of plant remains in upper layer of soil
(C) Plastic tubes are not harmed by rats
(D) Life of drip irrigation is very long
(E) Where there is lot of rainfall, there are no limitation to such system


15. If PE denotes monthly average value of potential evapo–transpiration and R stands for monthly average rainfall, the period having PE/4 greater than or equal to R, is designated as……
(A) Moist
(B) Humid
(C) Moderately Dry
(D) Severe Drought
(E) Dry


16. The National Agricultural Insurance Scheme in its first two years of operation envisaged to cover……
(A) all crops-grown by small and marginal farmers only
(B) all crops-cultivated with the help of crop loans only irrespective of the size of holding of the borrowers
(C) all food crops-cultivated by all types of farmers
(D) only horticultural crops
(E) only seven commercial crops-grown under contract farming system


17. Which one of the following breeds of sheep produces superior carpet wool in India ?
(A) Nellore
(B) Nilgiri
(C) Sonadi
(D) Dorset
(E) Jaisalmeri


18. Which one of the following is a European Species of honeybee successfully introduced in India ?
(A) Apis mellifera
(B) Apis florea
(C) Apis dorsata
(D) Apis cerana
(E) Apis melipona


19. Which one of the following Indian States/Union Territories accounts for the largest quantity of shrimp production per annum, among all the states of India ?
(A) West Bengal
(B) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(C) Orissa
(D) Kerala
(E) None of these


20. The hybrid of which one of the following crops was evolved by India using modern DNA techniques and released in February 2005 ?
(A) Ricinus communis
(B) Solgum vulgare
(C) Pennisetum typhoides
(D) Arachis hypogaea
(E) India has not released any such hybrid so far


21. As per the WTO Uruguay Round Agreement the domestic support creating trade distorting effect on agricultural commodities are included in……
(A) Green Box
(B) Amber Box
(C) Pink Box
(D) Blue Box
(E) None of these


22. Which one of the following is the name of the nematode, which lives as internal parasite of buds and foliage of Chrysanthemum and strawberry and causes distortions and crinkling of foliage, and leaf spots ?
(A) Aphelenchoides besseyi
(B) Pratilenchus thornei
(C) Meloidogyne incognita
(D) Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi
(E) None of these


23. Which of the following materials do not fit into the list of the raw materials used for feeding the earthworms in the scientific management of Vermiculture ?
(A) Grass Clippings
(B) Curd
(C) Carrot tops
(D) Lettuce leaves
(E) All are useful


24. A small dairy farm daily produces 100 kilograms of average quality buffalo milk and sells it to an organised dairy at the rate of Rs. 100 per kilogram of total solids contained in the milk. How much would be the daily gross income of the farm from the sale of milk ?
(A) Between Rs. 2,000 and Rs. 2,200
(B) Between Rs. 1,250 and Rs. 1,400
(C) Between Rs. 700 and Rs. 825
(D) Between Rs. 1,000 and Rs. 1,100
(E) Between Rs. 1,650 and Rs. 1,850


25. What would be the most probable date of giving the delivery of one day old chicks by a hatchery farmer, who has put the fertile eggs of hen on his well functioning incubator on First of January ?
(A) February 20
(B) February 5
(C) January 29
(D) January 22
(E) January 15


26. Which one of the following crops is sensitive to salt as well as boron in soil and water ?
(A) Grape
(B) Sugar beet
(C) Carrot
(D) Cotton
(E) None of these


27. Which one of the following ornamental plants is a native of India and has been introduced into several countries from India ?
(A) Gladiolus
(B) Orchids
(C) Bougainvillea
(D) Marigold
(E) None of these


28. How much area could be covered for giving one irrigation of 3? depth by a pumpset of one cusec output in the operation of 600 hours, if the water conveyance efficiency is 80 per cent ?
(A) 180 acres
(B) 320 acres
(C) 240 acres
(D) 160 acres
(E) None of these


29. If in a water tank, the water pressure is 5 kg/cm2, then, pressure head would be :
(A) 50 m
(B) 10 m
(C) 20 m
(D) 5 m
(E) None of these


30. Approximately how many eggs does a female silkworm lay in 24 hours after the proper copulation with the male moth in India ?
(A) 200
(B) 1200
(C) 100
(D) 400
(E) None of these


31. The causal organism of Ranikhet disease of fowls is……
(A) Pasteurella multocida
(B) Brucella melitensis
(C) Clorstridium chauvoei
(D) Sporoltrix schenkii
(E) None of these


32. Which one of the following is the name of self-fruitful variety of Prunus domestica grown in India ?
(A) Virginia Gold
(B) Santa Rosa
(C) Grand Duke
(D) Rome Beauty
(E) None of these


33. Other things being suitable, what level of temperature is considered ideal for optimum growth of banana crop ?
(A) 36°C
(B) 18°C
(C) 30°C
(D) 12°C
(E) 27°C


34. The deficiency of which one of the following vitamins in the ration of Poultry birds increases the Coagulation time of blood and creates the danger of haemorrhage ?
(A) Vitamin A
(B) Vitamin B1
(C) Vitamin K
(D) Vitamin D
(E) Vitamin B6


35. Which one of the following commodities does fall within the scope of the activities of National Horticulture Mission in India ?
(A) Tomato
(B) Arecanut
(C) Cashewnut
(D) Coconut


36. Which one of the following is a species of grasses suitable for soil conservation of ravine lands and the land affected by shifting cultivation ?
(A) Pennisetum polystachyon
(B) Cenchurus setigerus
(C) Eulalioposis binata
(D) Lasiurus sindicus
(E) Penicum antidotale


37. Which one of the following is the name of a dual purpose Indian cattle breed, which has been exported widely to Latin American countries in the past ?
(A) Gir
(B) Kankrej
(C) Tharparkar
(D) Nagauri
(E) None of these


38. Iodine deficiency in the Sow’s ratio during pregnancy would be reflected through the symptom of……
(A) Lactation failure
(B) Poor reproduction
(C) Birth of dead or weak piglets
(D) Birth of hairless piglets
(E) Birth of blind piglets


39. Which one of the following states has the largest area under Forest cover among all the states given in the list ?
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Assam
(C) Himachal Pradesh
(D) Mizoram
(E) Rajasthan


40. In the literature on the development of GMO crops, which one of the following crops is among those crops that have been designated as Orphan Crops ?
(A) Soybean
(B) Corn
(C) Cowpea
(D) Canola
(E) None of these


41. Which one of the following would be the probable date of kidding for a she-goat that has been successfully serviced on First of March ? (All dates belong to the same year)
(A) June 12
(B) July 29
(C) August 28
(D) September 15
(E) May 30


42. In India, which one of the following should be considered the right combination of the age in daysand live body weight in kg for a lamb for its weaning ?
(A) 20 days to 30 days and 6 kg to 7 kg
(B) 45 days to 60 days and 8 kg to 10 kg
(C) 105 days to 120 days and 18 kg to 21 kg
(D) 75 days to 90 days and 12 kg to 15 kg
(E) 55 days to 70 days and 9 kg to 11 kg


43. What is the causal organism of Powdery mildew of Ricinus communis ?
(A) Sphacelotheca reiliana
(B) Claviceps microcephala
(C) Leveillula taurica
(D) Puccinia carthami
(E) Fusarium annuum


44. Which one of the following countries has been the largest importer of floriculture products; especially rose and lotus flowers in terms of value from India over last five years among all the countries given in the list ?
(A) Japan
(B) Italy
(C) Netherlands
(D) UAE
(E) USA


45. As a good management practice recommended for the growing cattle in India, what should be the daily requirement of TDN for a cattle of 200 kg live body weight ?
(A) 3•2 kg
(B) 1•8 kg
(C) 2•4 kg
(D) 4•0 kg
(E) 0•9 kg


46. Milk fever in cattle is caused due to the deficiency of :
(A) Ca
(B) Fe
(C) Vit. ‘D’
(D) N
(E) None of these


47. The cake of which one of the following materials prepared with the comparable processing technology, contains the largest percentage of ‘N’ plant nutrient among all the materials given in the list?
(A) Coconut
(B) Neem
(C) Palm nut
(D) Mahua
(E) Karanj


48. In respect of total foodgrains production during 2007-08 in India, which is correct in production (million tonnes) ?
(A) 230•67
(B) 207•00
(C) 217•85
(D) 200•00
(E) None of these


49. Which one of the following feeding material is usually relished by the goats in India ?
(A) Hay prepared from forest grasses
(B) Straw of Sorghum vulgare
(C) Silage of Sorghum vulgare
(D) Straw of Phaseolus aureus
(E) None of these


50. During last five years, which of the following Institutions have extended the largest amount of fresh credit for agriculture in India among all the institutions given in the list ?
(A) NABARD (Direct credit)
(B) Commercial Banks
(C) Cooperative Banks
(D) Primary Agricultural Credit Societies
(E) Regional Rural Banks and Local Area Banks

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Punjab National Bank Specialist Officers Exam., 2009 : Professional Knowledge

1. This ‘Biofertilizer’ is a nitrogen fixing micro-organism, beneficial for non-leguminous as well as for vegetable crops—
(A) Rhizobium (RHZ)
(B) Azotobacter (AZT)
(C) Azospirillum (AZS)
(D) Blue Green Algae (BGA)
(E) Phosphate Solubilising (PSB) mobilizing bacteria

2. What percentage of total area under Banana cultivation in India presently, is cultivated by using Tissue-cultured (GMO) plantlets ?
(A) 10 per cent
(B) 15 per cent
(C) 20 per cent
(D) 25 per cent
(E) 30 per cent

3. As per the recent ‘Micro-credit Summit (2007)’, what percentage of total Micro Finance Institutions (MFls) in India serves less than, 10,000 clients (number of clients per MFI) ?
(A) 70 per cent
(B) 75 per cent
(C) 80 per cent
(D) 85 per cent
(E) 90 per cent

4. Fisheries Sector in India contributes what percentage of Agricultural—‘Gross Domestic Product’ (GDP), as on March 2007 ?
(A) 2•5 per cent
(B) 3•5 per cent
(C) 4•5 per cent
(D) 5•5 per cent
(E) 6•5 per cent

5. This agricultural product/horticultural crop requires 2 degree Celsius temperature and 90 per cent humidity for storing in the cold storage—
(A) Mango pulp
(B) Roses
(C) Mushroom
(D) Milk Products
(E) Fish Products

6. The plan outlay for Irrigation Sector to total plan outlay in India was highest (12•5 per cent) in this Five Year Plan (FYP)—
(A) VIth Five Year Plan
(B) VIIth Five Year Plan
(C) VIIIth Five Year Plan
(D) IXth Five Year Plan
(E) Xth Five Year Plan

7. The recommended ratio of use of NPK, the chemical fertilizer by farmers in India is—
(A) 2 : 2 : 2
(B) 3 : 2 : 1
(C) 4 : 2 : 1
(D) 5 : 2 : 1
(E) 6 : 2 : 1

8. This state is a leader in production and export of the Gherkins (Hybrid Cucumber) under the Contract Farming—
(A) Tamil Nadu
(B) Andhra Pradesh
(C) Karnataka
(D) Kerala
(E) Maharashtra

9. What should be the optimum spacing (in meters) for planting ‘Pusa Nanha’ variety of Papaya under the High Density Planting ?
(A) 1•25 m x 1•25 m
(B) 1•50 m x 1•50 m
(C) 1•75 m x 1•75 m
(D) 2•00 m x 2•00 m
(E) 2•50 m x 2•50 m

10. Dramatic increase in food prices world over had severe consequences for third world countries (FAO, 2008). How many countries in the world are now facing food crisis, because of this phenomenon ?
(A) 35 countries
(B) 36 countries
(C) 37 countries
(D) 38 countries
(E) 39 countries

11. How many outbreaks of ‘Avian Influenza (H5N1)’ were recorded in West Bengal and Tripura during January 2008 and May 2008 ?
(A) 37
(B) 39
(C) 40
(D) 41
(E) 42

12. According to Dr. C. Rangarajan ‘Committee on Financial Inclusion (2007)’, what percentage of Rural Population in India holds Bank Account ?
(A) 18 per cent
(B) 24 per cent
(C) 31 per cent
(D) 35 per cent
(E) 40 per cent

13. Which one of the following Indian States is the largest beneficiary or gainer of the SGSY–credit extended by Banks
during 2006–07 ?
(A) Tamil Nadu
(B) Bihar
(C) Orissa
(D) Uttar Pradesh
(E) None of these

14. This variety of Tomato is highyielding with good quality fruits and suitable for Jharkhand State for cultivation—
(A) Swarna Lalima
(B) Swarna Shyamali
(C) Swarna Pratibha
(D) Swarna Shree
(E) Swarna Manohar

15. How many plants/trees of Amrapali variety of mango could be profitably accommodated, when planted at 5•0 m x 5•0 m (square method) per hectare ?
(A) 1,400 plants
(B) 1,500 plants
(C) 1,600 plants
(D) 1,700 plants
(E) None of these

16. Which one of the following Brinjal hybrid varieties recently released suitable for U.P. Punjab, Bihar and Jharkhand—
(A) Kashi Sandesh
(B) Swarna Shakti
(C) Kashi Ganesh
(D) HA BH-17
(E) HA BH-3

17. ‘Sweta Seedless’ grape variety recently released by IIHRBangalore, is suitable for growing in—
(A) North India
(B) South India
(C) Western India
(D) Eastern India
(E) All over the country

18. Which one of the following rice/paddy hybrid varieties having superfine grain, aromatic, matured within 120-125 days and recently released for cultivation in Haryana, Delhi and Uttarakhand ?
(A) PA 6201
(B) Pusa RH 10
(C) KRH2
(D) RH 204
(E) Pant Sankar Dhan 3

19. Rabi Sorghum is an important crop suitable for ‘Rainfed Ecosystem’ of this State—
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Karnataka
(C) Gujarat
(D) Bihar
(E) Tamilnadu

20. This ‘Agro-Ecosystem’ is characterized by low, erratic rainfall with high coefficient of variation and frequent droughts in India—
(A) Irrigated agro-ecosystem
(B) Arid agro-ecosystem
(C) Coastal agro-ecosystem
(D) Rainfed agro-ecosystem
(E) Hill and Mountain agroecosystem

21. ‘Leaf Rust’ is a serious disease of this crop and till date, there is no effective and ecologically safe fungicide for controlling this disease—
(A) Sweet Potato
(B) Grape
(C) Rice
(D) Wheat
(E) Sorghum

22. What is botanical (Scientific) name of Safed Musli–a medicinal plant grown almost all over India ?
(A) Chlorophytum borivilianum
(B) Curculigo orchioides
(C) Piper longum
(D) Solanum surattense
(E) None of these

23. Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology is located at—
(A) Abohar (Punjab)
(B) Ludhiana (Punjab)
(C) Bangalore (Karnataka)
(D) Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh)
(E) Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)

24. Which one of the following Castor hybrids, you will suggest for getting good yields for rainfed and irrigated areas of Rajasthan State ?
(A) RHC 1 (VP-1 x TMV5-1)
(B) DCH 6 (JP 65 x JI 96)
(C) DCH 519 (M574 x DCS 78)
(D) DCH 177 (DCP 9 x DCS 9)
(E) None of these

25. Which one of the following ‘mixed cropping’ pattern you would suggest to the farmers for getting higher economic
benefits ?
(A) Bhindi + Spongegourd
(B) Mango + Turmeric
(C) Mango + Colocasia
(D) Mango + Groundnut
(E) Colocasia + Turmeric

26. Which one of the following States has created ‘Organic Commodities Board’ to promote and restore value of foodcrops, which are mostly grown on marginal lands ?
(A) Kerala
(B) Karnataka
(C) Jharkhand
(D) Madhya Pradesh
(E) Uttarakhand

27. The Central Frozen Semen Production and Training Institute is one of the premier Institute of Animal Husbandry, is located at (HQ)—
(A) Hessarghatta (Karnataka)
(B) Sunabada (Orissa)
(C) Dhamrod (Gujarat)
(D) Suratgarh (Rajasthan)
(E) Andeshnagar (Uttarakhand)

28. What percentage of total cultivable area in India is under ‘Horticultural Crops’ ?
(A) 10 per cent
(B) 11 per cent
(C) 12 per cent
(D) 13 per cent
(E) 14 per cent

29. ‘National Agricultural Insurance Scheme’ (NAIS) was in operation in India since—
(A) Rabi season 1999–2000
(B) Kharif season 1998–1999
(C) Rabi season 2000–2001
(D) Kharif season 2000–2001
(E) None of these

30. ‘Pusa Arunima’ is an improved hybrid variety of this crop relased by IARI, New Delhi—
(A) Mango
(B) Guava
(C) Grape
(D) Citrus
(E) Pomegranate

31. As on 2007, how many Indian States/Union Territories (UTs) have partially modified their respective Acts under the ‘Agricultural Marketing Reforms’ ?
(A) 12 States/UTs
(B) 13 States/UTs
(C) 14 States/UTs
(D) 15 States/UTs
(E) 16 States/UTs

32. What is the total ‘Export Earnings’ (Rs. crore) in 2004-05 from livestock, poultry and related products in India ?
(A) Rs. 2200 crore
(B) Rs. 2250 crore
(C) Rs. 2300 crore
(D) Rs. 2350 crore
(E) Rs. 5150 crore

33. Which one of the following States is leading one (Ranked first) in production of ‘Cut Flowers’ in India ?
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Karnataka
(C) Andhra Pradesh
(D) Uttar Pradesh
(E) West Bengal

34. To accommodate 277 plants of ‘Acid Lime’ in one hectare area, what should be the spacing between two plants ?
(A) 5•5 m x 5•5 m
(B) 6•0 m x 6•0 m
(C) 6•5 m x 6•5 m
(D) 7•0 m x 7•0 m
(E) None of these

35. Which one of the following ‘Maize Hybrids’, you will suggest to the farmers of Punjab State for growing in ‘Rabi season’ for Higher Yields ?
(A) Vivek Hybrid
(B) Vivek Hybrid 15
(C) Hybrid Sheetal
(D) Deccan 115
(E) Pratap Hybrid Makka 1

36. According to ‘National Sample Survey Organisation’ (NSSO 2006), which one of the following Information Sources is most availed by the Indian farmers in getting farm information ?
(A) Radio/TV
(B) Fram Input Dealers
(C) Progressive Farmers
(D) Krishi Vigyan Kendras
(E) Agricultural University Specialist

37. More than 40 per cent of the 197 Private Sugar Mills in India are located in this State—
(A) Uttar Pradesh
(B) Tamilnadu
(C) Chhattisgarh
(D) Andhra Pradesh
(E) Karnataka

38. What is the subsidy component to the total loan amount/total investment available to SC, ST, woman and other disadvantaged sections candidates under the scheme of ‘Establishing Agriclinic and Agribusiness Centres’ by the Agri/Vet/Horticultural graduates ?
(A) 25 per cent
(B) 33•33 per cent
(C) 50 per cent
(D) 60 per cent
(E) 80 per cent

39. In which one of the following years, the NABARD was established in India—as an Apex Financial Institution for Rural and Agricultural Development ?
(A) 1980
(B) 1981
(C) 1982
(D) 1983
(E) 1984

40. As per the RBI’s directives, Banks should not insist upon the margin/collateral security for the loans to borrowers upto the limits of—
(A) Rs. 50,000
(B) Rs. 75,000
(C) Rs. 1,00,000
(D) Rs. 1,25,000
(E) Rs. 1,50,000

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Random Agriculture Based Questions – 1

1. Nav Krishi is a programme by—
(1) Door Darshan
(2) All India Radio
(3) NIC
(4) ICRISAT
(5) MANAGE
2. One Acre is equal to…………..hectare.
(1) 0.0541
(2) 0.8032
(3) 0.1082
(4) 0.2514
(5) 0.4047
3. SRI technology is practiced for the cultivation of—

(1) Fruits
(2) Vegetables
(3) Flowers
(4) Rice
(5) Wheat
4. If the soil pH 9.2, then the soil is—
(1) Acidic
(2) Neutral
(3) Alkaline
(4) Saline
(5) Sodic
5. …………..is used for the reclamation of acidic soil—
(1) Lime
(2) Gypsum
(3) Sulphur
(4) Calcium Chloride
(5) Ferrous Sulphate
6. 2008 is declared as International Year of—
(1) Rice
(2) Wheat
(3) Sugarcane
(4) Potato
(5) Apple
7. Golden revolution refers to the development of—
(1) Oilseeds
(2) Pulses
(3) Horticulture
(4) Cereals
(5) Fodder
8. The most important rabi pulse crop in India is—
(1) Chickpea
(2) Soyabean
(3) Pigeon pea
(4) Green gram
(5) Black gram
9. RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) is—
(1) Growth promoter
(2) Molecular marker
(3) Growth retardent
(4) Herbicide
(5) Germicide
10. National Commission on Farmers was chaired by—
(1) Sri Som Pal
(2) Sri Y.C. Nanda
(3) Dr C. Rangarajan
(4) Dr M.S. Swaminathan
(5) Sri Sharad Pawar
11. Global Positioning Systems are useful for—
(1) Determining precise location (latitude and longitude) based on radio signal
(2) Determining precise distance based on radio signal
(3) Determining general pest system
(4) Determining disease forecast
(5) Determining area of farm
12. Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) recommends—
(1) Comfort Price
(2) State Advised Price
(3) Minimum Support Price
(4) Minimum Export Price
(5) Statutory Minimum Price
13. NPV (Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus) is—
(1) Pest
(2) Pathogen
(3) Bio pesticide
(4) Bio fungicide
(5) Bio control agent
14. National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation is known as—
(1) NIAM
(2) NAFED
(3) MARKFED
(4) NACMF
(5) NACOM
15. Which insect is known as farmers’ enemy No.1?
(1) Bollworm
(2) Desert locust
(3) Aphids
(4) Stem borer
(5) Fruit fly
16. Indian Institute of Forest management is located at—
(1) Chennai
(2) Bhopal
(3) Hissar
(4) Dehradun
(5) Imphal
17. In India forests account for about …………..of land surface.
(1) 11%
(2) 22%
(3) 33%
(4) 14%
(5) 25%
18. VAM is an alternative to inorganic fertilizer. VAM is—
(1) Azospirillum
(2) Mycorrhiza
(3) Phosphate solubilising bacteria
(4) Nitrogen fixing bacteria
(5) Azotobacter
19. An example of Single Cell Protein is—
(1) agar agar
(2) spirulina
(3) rhizobium
(4) acetobacter
(5) salmonella
20. Major producer of mulberry silk in India—
(1) Karnataka
(2) Jammu and Kashmir
(3) Jharkhand
(4) Assam
(5) Himachal Pradesh
21. Bird flu affects—
(1) Cattle
(2) Poultry
(3) Sheep
(4) Prawn
(5) Silkworm
22. Minor irrigation scheme comprises several types of works with capacities to irrigate upto—
(1) 2000 acre
(2) 2000 ha
(3) 1000 ha
(4) 1000 acre
(5) 2500 ha
23. Ideal NPK ratio for Indian soils is—
(1) 8 : 4 : 2
(2) 4 : 2 : 1
(3) 9 : 5 : 3
(4) 2 : 1 : 0.5
(5) 10 : 4 : 2
24. Which of the following is a bio diesel plant?
(1) Jatropha
(2) Rose
(3) Pepper
(4) Noni
(5) Teak
25. National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology is situated at—
(1) Nagpur
(2) New Delhi
(3) Mumbai
(4) Kolkata
(5) Chennai

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Biofertilizers: An Ecofriendly Way to Replace Chemical Fertilizers – Deepali and Kamal K. Gangwar

Introduction
Increasing use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture make country self dependent in food production but it deteriorate environment and cause harmful impacts on living beings. Due to insufficient uptake of these fertilizers by plants results, fertilizers reaches into water bodies through rain water, causes eutrophication in water bodies and affect living beings including growth inhabiting micro organism. The excess uses of chemical fertilizers in agriculture are costly and also have various adverse effects on soils i.e. depletes water holding capacity, soil fertility and disparity in soil nutrients. It was felt from a long time to develop some low cost effective and eco-friendly fertilizers which work without disturbing nature. Now, certain species of micro-organism are widely used which have unique properties to provide natural products, and serve as a good substitute of chemical fertilizers.



What is biofertilizer?
A number of micro-organisms (bacteria fungi and algae) are considered as beneficial for agriculture and used as biofertilizers.


Why biofertilizers?
Biofertilizers are supposed to be a safe alternative to chemical fertilizers to minimize the ecological disturbance. Biofertilizers are cost effective, eco-friendly and when they are required in bulk can be generated at the farm itself. They increase crop yield upto 10-40% and fix nitrogen upto 40-50 Kg. The other plus point is that after using 3-4 years continuously there is no need of application of biofertilizers because parental inoculums are sufficient for growth and multiplication. They improve soil texture, pH, and other properties of soil. They produces plant growth promoting substances IAA amino acids, vitamins etc. They have 75% moisture and it could be applied to the field directly. Biofertilizers contained 3.5% – 4% nitrogen, 2% – 2.5% phosphorus and 1.5% potassium. In terms of N: P: K, it was found to be superior to farmyard manure and other type of manure (Mukhopadhyay, 2006).


Microbes used as Biofertilizer
Microbes are effective in inducing plant growth as they secrets plant growth promoters (auxins, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, cytokinis, ethylene) and enhance seed germination and root growth. They also play a considerable role in decomposition of organic materials and enrichment of compost.


Nitrogen fixing Bacteria

  1. Rhizobia: – Legumes plants have root nodules, where atmospheric nitrogen fixation is done by bacteria belonging to genera, Rhizobium, Bradyshzodium, Sinorhizobium, Azorhizobium and Mesorhizobium collectively called as rhizobia. When rhizobial culture is inoculated in field, pulse crops yield can be increased due to rhizobial symbiosis (Dubey, 2001). Rhizobium can fix 15-20 N/ha and increase crop yield upto 20%.
  2. Azorhizobium: It is a stem nodule forming bacteria and fixes nitrogen symbionts of the stem nodule also produce large amount of IAA that promotes plant growth.
  3. Bradyrhizobium: Bradyrhizobium is reported a good nitrogen fixer. Bradyrhizobium strain inoculation with Mucuna seeds enhances total organic carbon, N2, phosphorus and potassium in the soil, increases plant growth and consequently plant biomass, reduction in the weed population and increased soil microbial population..



Diazotrophs
These are aerobic chemolithotrophs and anaerobic photoautotrophs. These are non nodule forming bacteria. They include numbers of the families:-
1. Azotobacteracae: e.g. Azotobacter:
They are the free living aerobic, photoautotrophic, non-symbiotic bacteria. They secretes vitamin-B complex, gibberellins, napthalene, acetic acid and other substances that inhibit certain root pathogens and improves root growth and uptake of plant nutrients. It occurs in the roots of Paspalum notatum (tropical grasses) and other spp. and adds 15-93 Kg N/ha/annum on P. notatum roots (Dobereiner et al., 1973). Azotobacter indicum occurs in acidic soil in sugarcane plant roots. It can apply in cereals, millets, vegetables and flowers through seed, seedlings soil treatment.
2. Spirillaceae: e.g. Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum:
These are gram negative, free living, associative symbiotic and non-nodule forming, aerobic bacteria, occurs in the roots of dicots and monocot plants i.e. corn, sorghum, wheat etc. It is easy to culture and identify. Azospirillum is found to be very effective in increasing 10-15% yield of cereal crops and fixes N2 upto 20-40% Kg/ha. Different A. brasiliense strains inoculation in the wheat seed causes increase in seed germination, plant growth, plumule and radicle length. Herbaspirillum species occurs in roots, stems and leaves of sugarcane and rice. They produce growth promoters (IAA, Gibberillins, Cytokinins) and enhance root development and uptake of plant nutrients (N, P & K).
3. Acetobacter diazotrophicus:
Another diazotroph is Acetobacter diazotrophicus occurs in roots, stem and leaves of sugarcane and sugar beat crops as nitrogen fixer and applied through soil treatment. It also produces growth promoters e.g. IAA and helps in nutrients uptake, seed germination, and root growth. This bacterium fixes nitrogen upto 15kg /ha/year and enhance upto 0.5 – 1% crop yield (Gahukar – 2005-06).


Cyanobacteria (Blue green algae):
Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Aulosira, Lyngbya etc. are the prokaryotic organisms and phototropic in nature. They play an important role in enriching paddy field soil by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and supply vitamin B complex and growth promoting substance which makes the plant grow vigorously. Cyanobacteria fixes 20-30 Kg/N/ha and increase10-15% crop yield when applied at 10 Kg/ha.


Azolla – Anabaena symbiosis
It is a free floating, aquatic fern found on water surface having a cyanobacterial symbiont Anabaena azollae in their leaves. It fixes atmospheric nitrogen in paddy field and excrete organic nitrogen in water during its growth and also immediately upon trampling. Azolla contributes nitrogen, phosphorus (15-20 Kg/ha/month), potassium (20-25 kg/ha/month) and organic carbon etc. and increases 10-20% yield of paddy crops and also suppresses weed growth. Azolla also absorbs traces of potassium from irrigation water and can be used as green manure before rice planting. Azolla spp. are metal tolerant hence, can be applied near heavy metal polluted areas.


Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria
Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megatherium var. phosphaticum, Acrobacter acrogens, nitrobacter spp., Escherichia freundii, Serratia spp., Pseudomonas striata, Bacillus polymyxa are the bacteria have phosphate solubilising ability. ‘Phosphobacterin’ are the bacterial fertilizers containing cells of Bacillus megatherium var. phosphaticum, prepared firstly by USSR scientists. They increased about 10 to 20 % crop yield (Cooper, 1959) and also produces plant growth promoting hormones which helps in phosphate solubilising activity of soil.


Phosphate solubilizing fungi
Some fungi also have phosphate dissolving ability e.g. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium digitatum etc.


Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)
They are also called as microbial pesticides e.g. Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescence. Serratia spp. and Ochrobactrum spp. are able to promote growth of plants. Pseudomonas fluorescence application to the Black pepper enhanced uptake of nutrients which increased plant biomass. Fluorescent rhizobacteria improve the growth of H. brasiliensis.


Mycorrhiza
Mycorrhizas are developed due to the symbiosis between some specific root inhabiting fungi and plant roots and used as biofertilizers. They absorb nutrients such as manganese, phosphorus, iron, sulphur, zinc etc. from the soil and pass it to the plant. Mycorrhizal fungus increases the yield of crops by 30-40% and also produces plant growth promoting substances.


VAM fungi or Endomycorrhiza
They occur commonly in the roots of crop plants. VAM fungal hyphae enhance the uptake of phosphorus and other nutrients that are responsible for plant growth stimulation including roots and shoot length. VAM also enhances the growth of black pepper and protects from Phytophthora capsici, Radopholus similis and Melvidogyne incognita (Anandraj et al., 2001). VAM fungi enhance water uptake in plants and also provide heavy metals tolerance to plants.


Authors:
Deepali and Kamal K. Gangwar
Punjab State Council for Science & Technology
Chandigarh- 160019.
deepali.phd@rediffmail.com, deepaligangwar.phd@gmail.com

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Hardly Farm Fresh – Sonali Bisht (Hindustan Times)

Unsafe agriculture practices rarely attract attention. But whatever little we know about the effects of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides on agriculture, it is alarming enough. Food and Agriculture Organization data shows that consumption of chemical fertilizers in the country has risen 170 times since 1950 and pesticide consumption has increased from 1 million tonne in the 1950s to over 75 million tonnes in recent years.
Despite such large scale usage of chemical inputs, India still has no robust system to monitor the usage of pesticides, their movements and effects on environment and human beings. Agriculture is the biggest utilizer of land and if the chemical inputs are not used carefully, they can pollute the soil, air and water. The consequences of such large-scale contamination could be irreversible and fatal.
Pesticides are known to cause a variety of health problems, some even life-threatening. Yet their usage in the agricultural sector continues unchecked. Paradoxically, the most intensive and expensive checks imposed today are on organic agriculture.
Organic products go through intensive checks in laboratories and rigorous on-field checks by third-party certifiers or a stringent Participatory Guarantee Scheme. This increases the price of safe natural food and deters farmers from claiming their produce to be organic. On the contrary, farmers using chemicals in agriculture don’t need to state clearly the chemical composition of fertilisers, pesticides and other inputs they use during cultivation and storage.

Consumers will be able to make informed choices only when they know where their food comes from, the chemical residues it is likely to contain and its effects on health. Today’s environment and health-conscious farmers need a level-playing field and the consumer the knowledge to make informed choices about what they are consuming.
The ministry of environment and forests (MoEF) must also involve itself in assessing environmental aspects of all agriculture practices and not only genetically modified crops. All agricultural practices using chemicals or synthetic products must go through environment impact assessment before they are cleared for use by the farmer. The MoEF needs to be more active and responsible regarding the effect of agricultural practices on environment.
Bhutan has recognized the close relationship between agriculture, forest and environment and has constituted a ministry of renewable natural resources. In our country too, the ministries of agriculture and environment must not remain segregated and function in two separate compartments.
Sonali Bisht is a development consultant and founder-member of Institute of Himalayan Environmental Research and Education, Uttarakhand. The views expressed by the author are personal.
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This section provides important links and information on topics related to the policies and important information on the Agriculture sector. Below is a selection of links to various educational institutions, departments as well as links to important government wide programs or initiatives.

Important information on the Agriculture Sector

Ministry


Departments


Directorates


Attached Offices


Subordinate Offices


Autonomous Bodies


Boards


Commissions


Councils


PSUs and Joint Ventures


Divisions/Units/Wings/Branches…

Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA), Chittoor –  
Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA), Shimla –  
Central Agricultural Research Institute (CARI) –  
Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI) –  
Central Avian Research Institute (CARI) –  
Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI) –  
Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (CIAH) –  
Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) –  
Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB) –  
Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT) –  
Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG) –  
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (CIAE) –  
Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA) –  
Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE) –  
Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA) –  
Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET) –  
Central Integrated Pest Management Centre (CIPMC) –  
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) –  
Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) –  
Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres (CRIJAF)
Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) –  
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI) –  
Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI) –  
Directorate of Maize Research (DMR) –  
Directorate of Wheat Research (DWR) –  
ICAR Research Complex, Goa –  
Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) –  
Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute (IASRI) –  
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) –  
Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR) –  
Indian Institute of Soil Science (IISS) –  
Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR) –  
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR) –  
Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) –  
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Babhaleshwar, Maharashtra –  
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Baramati, Maharashtra –  
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar –  
Library and Bioinformatics Centre, CPCRI –  
National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM) –  
National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) –  
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) –  
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP) –  
National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (NCAP) –  
National Research Centre for Agroforestry (NRCAF) –  
National Research Centre for Cashew (NRCC) –  
National Research Centre for Grapes (NRCG) –  
National Research Centre for Groundnut (NRCG) –  
National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (NRCMAP) –  
National Research Centre for Oil Palm (NRCOP) –  
National Research Centre for Orchids (NRCO) –  
National Research Centre for Weed Science (NRCWS) –  
National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture (NRCWA) –  
National Research Centre on Equines (NRCE) –  
National Research Centre on Yak (NRCYAK) –  
Plant Quarantine Organisation of India (PQOI) –  
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore –  
Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan (VPKAS) –  
Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (WTCER)

Others

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